SCH3U - Chemistry
Course Title: Chemistry
Course Code: SCH3U
Course Type: University Preparation
Credit Value: 1
Curriculum Policy Document: Science, The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and 12, 2008
Course Developer: Virtual High School (Ontario)
Development Date: 2009
Revision Date: 2012
This course enables students to deepen their understanding of chemistry through the study of the properties of chemicals and chemical bonds; chemical reactions and quantitative relationships in those reactions; solutions and solubility; and atmospheric chemistry and the behaviour of gases. Students will further develop their analytical skills and investigate the qualitative and quantitative properties of matter, as well as the impact of some common chemical reactions on society and the environment.
Titles and Descriptions
Time and Sequence
Matter, Chemical Trends, and Chemical Bonding
Building on knowledge of atoms and elements gained in earlier grades, students will explore the subatomic properties of elements and the mechanisms by which a limited number of elements combine to become an enormous variety of stable compounds. Students will use empirical data and atomic theory to explain trends in the periodic table as well as the nature of ionic and covalent bonds.
Having understood the nature of covalent bonding in some detail, students will start using two specific bonds - carbon-carbon, and carbon-hydrogen - to conceptually model chemical reactions such as combustion. The combustion of hydrocarbons is a reaction that is relatively straight-forward, so it is used to further model quantitative chemistry - the use of moles to describe numbers of molecules, the calculation of molar rations, the prediction of the quantities of products after a reaction has taken place, and so forth. Along the way, students will explore some of the technological and environmental considerations that are important to carbon chemistry. By the end of the unit, quantitative chemistry will be applied to a range of organic and inorganic contexts.
Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry
The study of gases has been a long concern of physical chemists: in fact, much of our knowledge of atomic structure and our calculations in quantitative chemistry have their roots in classic experiments on gases. These experiments will be explored, along with the mathematical formulae that they helped us to derive. Having acquired a strong understanding of the concept of molar ratios, students will use these calculations to solve a variety of problems involving the gaseous state. In this unit, students will also be introduced to the concepts of pressure and kinetic molecular theory. Technological and environmental considerations will be studied through guided independent work.
Solutions and Solubility
With foundations in different types of bonding, quantitative chemistry, and kinetic molecular theory, students are now ready to investigate problems involving solutions, solubility, and the elec tronic basis of pH. At this level, all of these studies have at their root a strong requirement for skillful stoichiometry - the understanding of how chemical equations balance in "real life". From the context of investigating variable solubility of polyatomic salts, different types of reaction will be explicitly classified and described. This will lead to a discussion of the activity series of metals, which ties back to the discussion near the beginning of the course about periodic table trends.
Final Summative Evaluation (Final Exam)
The final exam is designed to evaluate the mastery of expectations from without the course. The course is designed partially to help students see how aspects of chemistry that are currently being taught relate to aspects of chemistry that were covered in earlier parts of the course. The final exam reflects this goal of integrating knowledge.
Teaching / Learning Strategies:
As in a conventional classroom, instructors employ a range of strategies for teaching a course:
- Well-presented, clear writing and helpful graphics and diagrams
- Hands-on laboratory activities
- Research assignments, with direct instruction and coaching
In addition, teachers and students have at their disposal a number of tools that are unique to electronic learning environments:
- Electronic simulation activities
- Discussion boards and email
- Assessments with real-time feedback
- Interactive activities that engage both the student and teacher in subject
Assessment and Evaluation Strategies of Student Performance:
Assessment is a systematic process of collecting information or evidence about a student's progress towards meeting the learning expectations. Assessment is embedded in the instructional activities throughout a unit. The expectations for the assessment tasks are clearly articulated and the learning activity is planned to make that demonstration possible. This process of beginning with the end in mind helps to keep focus on the expectations of the course. The purpose of assessment is to gather the data or evidence and to provide meaningful feedback to the student about how to improve or sustain the performance in the course. Scaled criteria designed as rubrics are often used to help the student to recognize their level of achievement and to provide guidance on how to achieve the next level. Although assessment information can be gathered from a number of sources (the student, the student's course mates, the teacher), evaluation is the responsibility of only the teacher. Evaluation is the process of making a judgment about the assessment information and determining the percentage grade or level.
Assessment is embedded within the instructional process throughout each unit rather than being an isolated event at the end. Often, the learning and assessment tasks are the same, with formative assessment provided throughout the activity. In every case, the desired demonstration of learning is articulated clearly and the learning activity is planned to make that demonstration possible. This process of beginning with the end in mind helps to keep focus on the expectations of the course as stated in the course guideline. The evaluations are expressed as a percentage based upon the levels of achievement.
Overall Expectations: SCH3U
|Scientific Investigation Skills and Career Exploration|
|150.030.01.01||demonstrate scientific investigation skills (related to both inquiry and research) in the four areas of skills (initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and interpreting, and communicating);|
|150.030.01.02||identify and describe careers related to the fields of science under study, and describe the contributions of scientists, including Canadians, to those fields.|
|Matter, Chemical Trends, and Chemical Bonding|
|150.030.02.01||analyse the properties of commonly used chemical substances and their effects on human health and the environment, and propose ways to lessen their impact;|
|150.030.02.02||investigate physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds, and use various methods to visually represent them;|
|150.030.02.03||demonstrate an understanding of periodic trends in the periodic table and how elements combine to form chemical bonds.|
|150.030.03.01||analyse chemical reactions used in a variety of applications, and assess their impact on society and the environment;|
|150.030.03.02||investigate different types of chemical reactions;|
|150.030.03.03||demonstrate an understanding of the different types of chemical reactions.|
|Quantities in Chemical Reactions|
|150.030.04.01||analyse processes in the home, the workplace, and the environmental sector that use chemical quantities and calculations, and assess the importance of quantitative accuracy in industrial chemical processes;|
|150.030.04.02||investigate quantitative relationships in chemical reactions, and solve related problems;|
|150.030.04.03||demonstrate an understanding of the mole concept and its significance to the quantitative analysis of chemical reactions.|
|Solutions and Solubility|
|150.030.05.01||analyse the origins and effects of water pollution, and a variety of economic, social, and environmental issues related to drinking water;|
|150.030.05.02||investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of solutions, and solve related problems;|
|150.030.05.03||demonstrate an understanding of qualitative and quantitative properties of solutions.|
|Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry|
|150.030.06.01||analyse the cumulative effects of human activities and technologies on air quality, and describe some Canadian initiatives to reduce air pollution, including ways to reduce their own carbon footprint;|
|150.030.06.02||investigate gas laws that explain the behaviour of gases, and solve related problems;|
|150.030.06.03||demonstrate an understanding of the laws that explain the behaviour of gases.|
The Final Grade:
The evaluation for this course is based on the student's achievement of curriculum expectations and the demonstrated skills required for effective learning. The percentage grade represents the quality of the student's overall achievement of the expectations for the course and reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline. A credit is granted and recorded for this course if the student's grade is 50% or higher. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:
- 70% of the grade will be based upon evaluations conducted throughout the course. This portion of the grade will reflect the student's most consistent level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration will be given to more recent evidence of achievement.
- 30% of the grade will be based on a final assessment task that occurs at or near the end of the course. In the case of this course, this final assessment task will take the form of a final examination which will be completed online under the supervision of a pre-approved proctor. The exam is worth 30% of the studentís final mark in the course.
The Report Card:
The report card will focus on two distinct but related aspects of student achievement; the achievement of curriculum expectations and the development of learning skills. The report card will contain separate sections for the reporting of these two aspects.
Achievement Chart: Science, Grades 9-12
|Knowledge and Understanding - Subject-specific content acquired in each course (knowledge), and the comprehension of its meaning and significance (understanding)|
|Knowledge of content (e.g., facts, terminology, definitions, safe use of equipment and materials)||demonstrates limited knowledge of content||demonstrates some knowledge of content||demonstrates considerable knowledge of content||demonstrates thorough knowledge of content|
|Understanding of content (e.g., concepts, ideas, theories, principles, procedures, processes)||demonstrates limited understanding of content||demonstrates some understanding of content||demonstrates considerable understanding of content||demonstrates thorough understanding of content|
|Thinking and Investigation - The use of critical and creative thinking skills and inquiry, research, and problem-solving skills and/or processes|
|Use of initiating and planning skills and strategies (e.g., formulating questions, identifying the problem, developing hypotheses, selecting strategies and resources, developing plans)||uses initiating and planning skills and strategies with limited effectiveness||uses initiating and planning skills and strategies with some effectiveness||uses initiating and planning skills and strategies with considerable effectiveness||uses initiating and planning skills and strategies with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Use of processing skills and strategies (e.g., performing and recording, gathering evidence and data, observing, manipulating materials and using equipment safely, solving equations, proving)||uses processing skills and strategies with limited competence||uses processing skills and strategies with moderate competence||uses processing skills and strategies with considerable competence||uses processing skills and strategies with a high degree of competence|
|Use of critical / creative thinking processes, skills, and strategies (e.g., analysing, interpreting, problem solving, evaluating, forming and justifying conclusions on the basis of evidence )||uses critical / creative thinking processes, skills, and strategies with limited effectiveness||uses critical / creative thinking processes, skills, and strategies with some effectiveness||uses critical / creative thinking processes, skills, and strategies with considerable effectiveness||use critical / creative thinking processes, skills, and strategies with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Communication - The conveying of meaning through various forms|
|Expression and organization of ideas and information (e.g., clear expression, logical organization) in oral, visual, and/or written forms (e.g., diagrams, models)||expresses and organizes ideas and information with limited effectiveness||expresses and organizes ideas and information with some effectiveness||expresses and organizes ideas and information with considerable effectiveness||expresses and organizes ideas and information with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Communication for different audiences (e.g., peers, adults) and purposes (e.g., to inform, to persuade) in oral, visual, and/or written forms||communicates for different audiences and purposes with limited effectiveness||communicates for different audiences and purposes with some effectiveness||communicates for different audiences and purposes with a high degree of effectiveness||communicates for different audiences and purposes with considerable effectiveness|
|Use of conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline in oral, visual, and/or written forms (e.g., symbols, formulae, scientific notation, SI units)||uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with limited effectiveness||uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with some effectiveness||uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with considerable effectiveness||uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Application - The use of knowledge and skills to make connections within and between various contexts|
|Application of knowledge and skills (e.g., concepts and processes, safe use of equipment, scientific investigation skills) in familiar contexts||applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with limited effectiveness||applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with some effectiveness||applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with considerable effectiveness||applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Transfer of knowledge and skills (e.g., concepts and processes, safe use of equipment, scientific investigation skills) to unfamiliar contexts||transfers knowledge and skills to unfamiliar contexts with limited effectiveness||transfers knowledge and skills to unfamiliar contexts with some effectiveness||transfers knowledge and skills to unfamiliar contexts with considerable effectiveness||transfers knowledge and skills to unfamiliar contexts with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Making connections between science, technology, society, and the environment (e.g., assessing the impact of science on technology, people and other living things, and the environment)||makes connections between science, technology, society, and the environment with limited effectiveness||makes connections between science, technology, society, and the environment with some effectiveness||makes connections between science, technology, society, and the environment with considerable effectiveness||makes connections between science, technology, society, and the environment with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Proposing courses of practical action to deal with problems relating to science, technology, society, and the environment||proposes courses of practical action of limited effectiveness||proposes courses of practical action of some effectiveness||proposes courses of practical action of considerable effectiveness||proposes highly effective courses of practical action|
Resources required by the student:
- SCH3U online course of study
- access to a scanner or digital camera
Note: This course is entirely online and does not require or rely on any textbook. However, if students wish to seek additional information we would recommend these texts:
- Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2011.
- Chemistry 11 University Preparation, Nelson Education Ltd.,2011.
Program Planning Considerations for Science:
Teachers planning a program in Science must take into account considerations in a number of important areas. Essential information that pertains to all disciplines is provided in the companion piece to this document, Science. The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and 12: Some Considerations for Program Planning, 2008. The areas of concern to all teachers include the following:
- Instructional Approaches
- Health and Safety in Science
- Planning Science Programs for Students with Special Education Needs
- Program Considerations for English Language Learners
- Environmental Education
- Antidiscrimination Education
- Critical Thinking and Critical Literacy in Science
- Literacy, Mathematical Literacy, and Investigation (Inquiry/Research) Skills
- The Role of Information and Communications Technology in Science
- The Ontario Skills Passport and Essential Skills
- Career Education
- Cooperative Education
- Planning Program Pathways and Programs Leading to a Specialist High Skills Major
Considerations relating to the areas listed above that have particular relevance for program planning in Science.
Instructional Approaches. Students bring to the classroom a natural curiosity as well as individual interests and abilities within their diverse personal and cultural experiences. Effective instructional approaches in Science draws upon their prior knowledge, captures their interest and encourages meaningful practice especially when the student sees a connection between wheat they are learning and their real-world application. Students are provided with opportunities to learn in a variety of ways. From a solid understanding of scientific concepts, the scientific method is employed to enable the student to investigate their world. The context for all learning in Science comes from the Relating Science to Technology, Society and the Environment (STSE) expectations.
Health and Safety in Science. The Science program provides the reading and analytical skills for the student to be able to explore the variety of concepts relating to health and safety in the workplace. Teachers who provide support for students in workplace learning placements need to assess placements for safety and ensure that students can read and understand the importance of issues relating to health and safety in the workplace. Teachers must also ensure that students have the knowledge and skills for safe participation in science activities.
Planning Science Programs for Students with Special Education Needs. Teachers plan programs that recognize the diversity of student strengths and needs by providing performance tasks that respect their student's particular abilities. The teacher will examine the strengths and learning needs of the student as well as the knowledge and skills that all students are expected to demonstrate in order to accommodate and/or modify the curriculum expectations as recorded in the student's Individual Education Plan (IEP).
Program Considerations for English Language Learners. Teachers will find positive ways to incorporate the diversity among the students into the online classroom environment. This Science course can provide a wide range of options to address the needs of ESL/ELD students. ESL programs are for students born in Canada or new comers whose first language is not English. ELD programs are for newcomers whose first language is not English. Assessment and evaluation exercises will help ESL students in mastering the English language and all of its idiosyncrasies. In addition, since all occupations require employees with a wide range of English skills and abilities, many students will learn how the operation of their own physical world can contribute to their success in their social world.
Environmental Education. The increased emphasis on relating science to technology, society, and the environment (STSE) provides numerous opportunities for teachers to integrate environmental education effectively into this science course.
Antidiscrimination Education. Antidiscrimination education promotes a school climate and classroom practice that encourages all students to work to high standards, ensures that they are given a variety of opportunities to be successful, affirms their self-worth, and helps them strengthen their sense of identity and positive self-image. The science curriculum is designed to help students acquire the habits of mind that are essential in a complex democratic society characterized by rapid technological, economic, political, and social change. These include respect and understanding with regard to individuals, groups, and cultures in Canada and the global community, including an appreciation and valuing of the contributions of Aboriginal people to the richness and diversity of Canadian life. The science curriculum also promotes respect and responsibility for the environment and an understanding of the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of citizenship. The learning activities in this science course should be inclusive in nature, reflecting diverse points of view and experiences. They should enable students to become more sensitive to the experiences and perceptions of others, to value and show respect for diversity in the school and in the wider society, and to make responsible and equitable decisions in their own relationships. The critical thinking and scientific research skills acquired in science courses will enable students to recognize bias and stereotyping, as well as discriminatory attitudes that create barriers to productive relationships.
Critical Thinking and Critical Literacy in Science. Teachers plan science programs to promote critical thinking skills such as questioning, predicting, hypothesizing, analysing, synthesizing, examining opinions, identifying values and issues, detecting bias, and distinguishing between alternatives. As students work to achieve the STSE expectations, they are frequently asked to identify the implications of an action, activity, or process. In addition as students develop the skills of scientific investigation (inquiry/research skills), students are given the opportunity to ask appropriate questions to frame their research, interpret information, and detect bias. These learning activities would equip students with the skills to assess, analyze, and/or evaluate the impact of something on society and the environment.
Literacy, Mathematical Literacy, and Investigation (Inquiry/Research) Skills. Teachers plan science courses so that literacy, mathematical literacy, and investigation skills which are critical to students' success in all school subjects and in all areas of their lives, become integrated into the courses. To help students construct meaning from scientific texts, the science teachers model and teach the strategies that support learning to read while students are reading to learn in science. The science program builds on, reinforces, and enhances mathematical literacy. Students will also learn how to locate relevant information in a variety of print and electronic sources.
The Role of Information and Communications Technology in Science. Information technology is considered a learning tool that must be accessed by science students when the situation is appropriate. As a result, students will develop transferable skills through their experience with word processing, internet research, presentation software, and telecommunication tools, as would be expected in any environment.
The Ontario Skills Passport and Essential Skills. Teachers planning science programs are aware of the purpose and benefits of the Ontario Skills Passport (OSP). The OSP is a bilingual, web-based resource that enhances the relevance of classroom learning for students and strengthens school-work connections. The OSP provides clear descriptions of Essential Skills such as Reading Text, Writing, Computer Use, Measurement and Calculation, and Problem Solving and includes an extensive database of occupation-specific workplace tasks that illustrate how workers use these skills on the job. The Essential Skills are transferable, in that they are used in virtually all occupations. For further information on the OSP and the Essential Skills, visit Ontario Skills Passport.
Career Education. Science definitely helps prepare students for employment in a huge number of diverse areas. The skills, knowledge and creativity that students acquire through this course are essential for a wide range of careers. Being able to express oneself in a clear concise manner without ambiguity, solve problems, make connections between this Science course and the larger world, etc., would be an overall intention of this Science course, as it helps students prepare for success in their working lives.
Cooperative Education. By applying the skills they have developed, students will readily connect their classroom learning to real-life activities in the world in which they live. Cooperative education and other workplace experiences will broaden their knowledge of employment opportunities in a wide range of fields. In addition, students will increase their understanding of workplace practices and the nature of the employer-employee relationship. Teachers of Science should maintain links with community-based workers to ensure that students have access to hands-on experiences that will reinforce the knowledge they have gained in school.
Planning Program Pathways and Programs Leading to a Specialist High Skills Major. Teachers plan their science courses to be well suited for inclusion in some programs leading to a Specialist High Skills Major (SHSM) or in programs designed to provide pathways to particular apprenticeship or workplace destinations. Science courses may also be combined with cooperative education credits to provide the workplace experience required for some SHSM programs and for various program pathways to apprenticeship and workplace destinations.